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Practica listenings, readings, speaking, writing, grammar, vocabulary and more....

lunes, 30 de mayo de 2011

DEFINING OR NON-DEFINING

RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
                                                                                                    
                                                                                                       when         why
                       PERSON                   THING             PLACE     TIME      REASON

Subject        who/that                    which/that             


Object      who,whom, which,            which/that          where              
                   that or nothing                 nothing


Possessive     whose                         whose

DEFINING

Used to define who or what we are talking about. Comma are not used in definign relative clauses

Example:

Elephants who marry mice are very unusual.

Hay muchos elefantes pero solo hablamos de los que se casan con ratones, necesitamos definir de que elefantes hablamos, además decimos who y no which, porque la acción de casarse es cosa de personas.

The students who had revised hard passed the exam (only some of the students revised, and these were the ones who passed the exam)

The relative pronoun stands in place of a noun (en lugar de un nombre).
This noun usually appears earliere in the sentence (este nombre está antes en la frase)

The woman who/that spoke at the meeting was very knowledgeable

We can use that instead of who, whom (very formal), which. The first time is better use who, which, whom.
That normally follows words like something, anything, everything, nothing, all, and superlatives.

There's somthing that you should know
It was the best film that I've ever seen

The doctor whom, who, nothing, that I was hoping ti see wasn't on duty.

The relative pronoun can be omitted when it is the object of the clause (who, whom, which or that).

Si hay un nombre o pronombre después del pronombre relativo podemos omitirlo porque es el objeto de la cláusula.

The mousse that the elephant love was very beautiful. Correct
The mousse the elephant love was very beautiful. Correct, but is more common in spoke English.

The company that she works for is based in London. Correct
The company she works for is basde in London. Correct
The company that employs her is based in London. Correct
The company employs her is based in London. Incorrect, because The company is a subject pronoun and I need that.

Whose (cuyo/a, cuyos/as..) is used for things as well as for people. Possessive

The man whose car was stolen is from Russia
A tree whose leaves have fallen looks very different

NON-DEFINING

These clause add more information. This extra information is put between commas and does not explain who or what we are talking about.

We can not use That instead of who, which in non- defining clauses.
We can use, some, none, all and many with "of which" and "whom" to add extra information.

In non-defining relative clauses, object pronoun must be used

Lucy, who I haven't seen for ages, rang me last night.


SUBJECT OR OBJECT?

If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun. Subject pronouns must always be used.

the apple which is lying on the table. WHICH+ VERB= SUBJECT PRONOUN

If the relative pronoun is not followed by a verb (but by a noun or pronoun), the relative pronoun is an object pronoun. Object pronouns can be dropped in defining relative clauses, which are then called Contact Clauses.

the apple (which) George lay on the table.  WHICH+NOUN/PRONOUN= OBJECT PRONOUN


EXAMPLES

My students, many of whom are from Europe, are learning English to get a better job

My students, who are all adults, are learning English to get a better job.

My students, who had revise hard, passed the exam(all the students revised and they all passed it)


EXERCISE


Relative clauses - defining or non-defining?

Study the situations and then decide whether the following relative clauses are defining or non-defining.
defining – no commas
non-defining – commas
  1. I have three brothers.

  2. I have one sister.

  3. Bob's mum has lost her keys.

  4. My friend Jane moved to Canada.

  5. I am a shoe fanatic.

  6. Mr Robinson is very famous.

  7. Tamara has two cats. Both of them are black.

  8. Kevin has four cats. Two of them are black.

  9. We are on holiday. Yesterday we visited a church.

  10. We are on holiday. Yesterday we visited a church.

2º EXERCISE

Decide whether the relative pronouns must be used or not.

  1. A calendar is something which tells you the date.

  2. Strikers are soccer players who try to score goals for their team.

  3. Jane is a person who everybody likes.

  4. A stamp is something which you put on a letter if you want to send it.

  5. The Thames is a river which runs through London.

  6. Cheese is food which mice like eating.

  7. A racket is something which you use to hit a ball when you play tennis or badminton.

  8. Socks are things which you wear on your feet.

  9. A guide is a person who shows tourists around around a place.

  10. Love is a feeling which nobody can describe.


3EXERCISE

Decide whether the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun or an object pronoun.
  1. Do you know the girl who I danced with? -
  2. Do you know the girl who danced with me? -
  3. The apples that are lying on the table are bad. -
  4. The apples that we bought in the shop are bad. -
  5. We will stay at a hotel which is not far from the beach. -
  6. We will stay at a hotel which my friend has recommended to us.
  7. That is a museum which I like very much. -
  8. That is a museum which lies in the heart of the town.
  9. This is the man who Barbara visited in Scotland.
  10. This is the man who lives in Scotland.
4EXERCISE

Choose the correct relative pronoun (who, which, whose).
  1. This is the bank was robbed yesterday.
  2. A boy sister is in my class was in the bank at that time.
  3. The man robbed the bank had two pistols.
  4. He wore a mask made him look like Mickey Mouse.
  5. He came with a friend waited outside in the car.
  6. The woman gave him the money was young.
  7. The bag contained the money was yellow.
  8. The people were in the bank were very frightened.
  9. A man mobile was ringing did not know what to do.
  10. A woman daughter was crying tried to calm her.
  11. The car the bank robbers escaped in was orange.
  12. The robber mask was obviously too big didn't drive.
  13. The man drove the car was nervous.
  14. He didn't wait at the traffic lights were red.
  15. A police officer car was parked at the next corner stopped and arrested them.
5.exercise

Decide whether the relative pronon us correct or not.
  1. The postman which works in this village is very old. Correct or not.
  2. The egg which is in the nest is brown. Correct or not
  3. Where is the bed who was in the attic. Correct or not
  4. The cowboy who is wearing the red shirt is very funny. Correct or not
  5. The bottles that are lying on the foor are green. Correct or no

ANSWERS

1 exercise.
a,bbb,a,bb,aa,b

2. exercise
aa,bb,a,bbb,a,b

3. exercise
who-object
who-subj
that-subj
that-obj
which- subj
which- obj
wich-. obj
which-subj
who- obj
who- subj

4.exercise

which, whose,who, which,who, who, which,who,whose, whose, which, whose,who, which,whose

5.exercise

not correct, correct, not correct,correct, correct.

sources.ego4.com and Jean's notes

REPORTED SPEECH - STATEMENTS

Backshift of tenses
fromto
Peter: "I work in the garden."Peter said that he worked in the garden.
Peter: "I worked in the garden."Peter said that he had worked in the garden.
Peter: "I have worked in the garden."
Peter: "I had worked in the garden."
Peter: "I will work in the garden."Peter said that he would work in the garden.
Peter: "I can work in the garden."Peter said that he could work in the garden.
Peter: "I may work in the garden."Peter said that he might work in the garden.
Peter: "I would work in the garden."
(could, might, should, ought to)
Peter said that he would work in the garden.
(could, might, should, ought to)
Progressive forms
Peter: "I'm working in the garden."Peter said that he was working in the garden.
Peter: "I was working in the garden."Peter said that he had been working in the garden.
Peter: "I have been working in the garden."
Peter: "I had been working in the garden."

REPORTED SPEECH STATEMENTS. EXPLANATION

Reported statements. Indirect Speech:    lo usamos para decir lo que otra persona ha dicho

SAY: es más común usar “said”  cuando alguien en general dice algo “he said that”.
Si lo dice alguien en particular “Rita told me”. Pero ambos pueden usarse.

ATENCIÓN: No podemos usar “said” con una persona o un pronombre. 

Ejemplo:   HE SAID  HER  THAT  HE LOVE HER

Pero si podemos usarlo si después del “said” ponemos “to” + persona o pronombre.
 El “that” puede omitirse cuando hay 2 sujetos.

Ejemplo:    HE SAID TO ME THAT HE LOVE HER

Direct Speech:             “ SUJETO + VERBO + COMPLEMENTOS

  SHE:                               “ I                LIKE             SHOPPING.”

Indirect Speech:            SUJETO + SAID + (THAT) + SUJETO 2 + VERBO + COMPLENTOS

                                        She             said     (that)         she           liked              shopping

No olvides que este es el estilo indirecto, así que elige el verbo, sujeto, objeto, tiempo y lugar correctos teniendo en cuenta los que hay en el estilo directo. En cuanto a tiempo no siempre hay que cambiarlo, depende del contexto, si yo digo “ I went to the dentist this morning” y por la noche yo se lo cuento a una amiga, el tiempo sigue siendo el mismo en el estilo directo que en el indirecto “this morning”.

TELL:  cuando alguien en particular dice algo.

ATENCIÓN: No podemos usar “told” con “that”. 

Ejemplo:   MARK TOLD THAT ME  HE LOVE HER

Pero si podemos usarlo si después del “told” ponemos un objeto o pronombre +” that”. El “that” se puede omitir cuando hay 2 sujetos

Ejemplo:    MARK TOLD ME THAT HE LOVE HER


Direct Speech:             “ SUJETO + VERBO + COMPLEMENTOS

   ANNA :                       “ I                LIKE             SHOPPING.”

Indirect Speech:  SUJETO + TOLD  + OBJETO +( THAT) +  SUJETO 2 + VERBO + C

                            Anna         told          me            ( that)            she             liked              shopping
                            Anna          told             me                                  she             liked              shopping

REPORTED COMMANDS

POSITIVE-
told + person +  to+ infinitive

Father."Do your homework"
Father told me to do my homework

NEGATIVE
Teacher."Don't talk to your partner"
Teacher told me not to talk to my partner

EXERCISE

1.Teacher:" Do your homework"----- The teacher told me..........................................................

2.Karen:"Don't play football in the garden"--Karen told me.......................................................

3.Nelly." Help Peter's sister"----Nelly told me.........................................................................

4. Anna:" Open the window"--Anna told me...........................................................................

5.Mike."Don't shout at Frank"---Mike told me......................................................................


ANSWERS
  1. to do my homework
  2. not to play in the garden
  3. to help Peter's sister
  4. to open the window
  5. not to shout at Frank

REPORTED QUESTIONS

This (evening)----------------------that (evening)---------that

Today/This day--------------------that day

These (days)-----------------------those (days)

now-------------------------------then

(a week) ago----------------------(a week ) before

last weekend---------------------  the weekend before/the previous weekend

here-------------------------------there

next (week)-----------------------the following ( week)

tomorrow------------------------the next day/ the following day

yesterday------------------------the day before/the previous day

  • Question without question words-Yes o No

Peter: Do you play football--- Peter asked me ( if /whether) I played football
            present                                                  S.past

  • Question with question words: use the question in the report

Peter: When do you play football?---Peter asked me when  I played football
           QW     Present                                           QW     S.past

EXERCISE

1.Susan: "Do you want to dance?"---Susan asked me ......................................

2.Anna:"When did you arrive?"------Anna asked me .......................................

3.Mandy:"Can I help you?"-----------Mandy asked me.....................................

4.Justin:" What are you going?------Justin asked me........................................

5.Julie: "Did you watch the latest film?"---Julie asked me.................................

6.Andy:"Will Mandy have lunch with Sue?"----Andy asked me.........................

7.Mark." Has John arrived?"---------Mark asked me........................................

8.Helen."Are you reading that book now?"
-Yesterday Helen asked me.....................................................................

9.Jenny:"Where do you play football today?"
- Yesterday Jenny asked me...............................................................

10.Linda:"Must I do the homework this week?"
- Linda asked me ...................................................................................


ANSWERS

1.  whether I wanted to dance
2.  when I had arrived
3.  whether she could help me
4.  what I was doing
5.  if I had watched the latest film
6. if Mandy would have lunch with Sue
7. if John had arrived
8. if I was reading that book then
9.where I played football that day
10. if  she had to dot the homework that week

sábado, 28 de mayo de 2011

GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

Good Link:  Gerunds and Infinitives explanations

EXERCISE 1
EXERCISE 2
EXERCISE 3
EXERCISE 4
EXERCISE 5

 video by Isc 2010
Gerunds and infinitives
REMEMBER+ TO


La acción va en segundo lugar

LAST NIGHT WHEN I WENT TO BED I REMEMBERED TO LOCK THE DOOR

1º recordé que no había cerrado la puerta
2º cerré la puerta

REMEMBER +-ING

REMEMBER DOING SOMETHING IN THE PAST

La acción ya ha pasado. La acción va en primer lugar

I REMEMBER POSTING THE LETTER
1º eché la carta
2º recordé que había echado la carta.







EXERCISE 1
EXERCISE 2
EXERCISE 3
EXERCISE 4
EXERCISE 5

TELEVISION is GOOD or BAD?



Television can be great for children.There is a huge amount of educational content out there and many popular TV shows provide great entertainnment and introduce children to story-telling, stimulate imagination and social and moral reasoning. For busy parents, TV can be a ready-made babysitter and provide some child-free time.

However, almost everybody agrees that too much time spent in from of the TV is not very good for the children (nor it is good for teenagers or adults, for that matter).

TV works ists negative effects in several ways. Firstly, time spent watching TV is time that is not available for other activities that are necessary for development, particularly outdoor play and other physical activities. TV watching can get in the way of reading, social interaction and study too. Secondly, lengthy and indiscriminate watching of television leads to exposure to a lot of inappropiate content.

Ungoverned and excessive television viewing by our children today is giving rise to a number of emotional and healthy problems. Children who consitently spend hours in front of television screen are more likely to be obese and have unhealthy eating habits. Viewing violent programmes on it tends to make them aggressive and give a distorted view of the world around them.

Parents should govern the quality and  quantity and limit the time that their children spent watching TV. Only allow television after the household chores are done and homework is finished. It's alright to let kids watch some special programme once in a while during study hours but do not let it become a norm. By limiting the time, children learn to choose which programmes they really want to watch.
If they have a garden or backyard, they should encourage their children enjoy nature by helping them set up a tree house and grow plants, besides, the others outdoor activities which results in less television viewing.

It's a good idea if parents make a timetable of programs that are good and informational and stick it somewhere near the television set. Switch on the set only when the program is on air. Make sure that the TV is switched off as the agreed program is over instead of channel sufirng.
And it's a bad idea that children have a television set in their bedrooms. It will be better for them if they spend their free time, reading books and playing puzzles, board games, etc.
It is very convenient to let the television become an unpaid babysitter. Parents must get involved with their kids an play with them. Spending quelity fun time with parents can make children forget what shows are on and they won't fell as if they are missing out on anything special.





THE ENVIRONMENT


READING

The life of a plant or animal is affeted by many things in its surroundings, or environment.
The enviroment includes the air, water, soil, climate, and the living things in the area. We are responsible for many of the changes of the natural enviroment. Many of these changes have become a threat to life on earth. We are beginning to understand that there are many things we can do to save our environment and must all work together to do what we can.
There are a lot of problems on our planet Earth: air and water pollution, disappearing forest, endangered plants and animals like the whale and the panda.
But there are a lot of things which can be done, like pretecting the forests. Trees are very giving. They give us wood and fruit, they serve as wind barriers and noise buffers. They also give us shade and oxygen.
We must use trees wisely and plant new trees to replace those that are cut down to make paper.Reducing the amount of paper we use, reusing the one we have and recycling the paper we do not need are some ways to help save the trees.
For instance, you should write on both sides of a piece of paper, use a cloth towel instead of a paper towel to dry your hands and don't use plastic bags at the supermarket, especially if you use the bag only once and throw it away. Take a cloth bag that you can use again and again.
More and more people all over the world realize that global warning is real and serious problem.The summers are hotter and the winters are warmer. As a result, glaciers have become smaller. Storms will be become worse, too.

Take action adn save the planet today!

- Take a public transportation like trains and buses as much as possible. Even better, walk.
- Use less water at home. For example, when you brush your teeth, turn off the water.
- Turn off the lights, computer, TV, and so on when you're not using them. This will decrease your electricity consumption.
-Recycle newspapers, aluminun cans, plastic bottles, and so on.
- Organize or participate in a clean-up day in your neighborhood. Help clean the parks, beaches, and land in the area.



DISCUSS

What do you know about global warming?
Is global warming a problem?Why/not?
How do you protect the enviromente? Please explain.
Do you think cars should be banned from city centres?
How has the world changed dince you were a child?
What are some ways that you can reduce pollution in this country?
What can you do to make this world a better place?
Do you thing recycling is an important community service? Do you recycle?

VOCABULARY

a gale- viento fuerte
atmosphere- atmósfera
coal- carbón
ice cap- casquete polar
glacier- glaciar
pollution- polución
acid rain- lluvia ácida
aerosol- spray aerosol
climate- clima
soil, earth- tierra
conservation- conservación
animal welfare- bienestar de los animales-habitat
endangered species- especies en peligro
energy- energía
nuclear energy- energía nuclear
exhaust fumes- contaminación emitida por los tubos de escape.
fertilizers- fertilizantes
pesticides- pesticidas
global warning- calentamiento global
oil-slick- capa de aceite, petroleo u similares que cubren un area. PRESTIGE, vertido de petróleo en el mar
rain forest-
waste- desperdicios, basura
litter- despercicios, pero pequeños como la envoltura de una chocolatina, una lata de cola...
protected animal- animales protegidos
(non) renewable resouces- recursos no renovables.
wildlife- vida salvaje
shipwaste- desperdicios, basuras de los barcos
sewage disposal- aguas residuales: fregaderos, bañeras, water...
intensive farming- cuando hay más cosechas de lo normal
shortage-no hay suficiente de algo
smog- mezcla de humo y niebla
to recycle- reciclar
to prevent- prevenir
to melt- derretir
to destroy- destruir
 to dispose- deshacerse de
to dump- tirar, verter en sitios no apropiados
clean up- limpiar
to plant- plantar
spill something- derramar
to cut down- talar, reducir algo
to pollute- contaminar
to save- salvar
Throw away- tirar
to let- dejar
to extinct- extinguir
rubbish- cosas que tiramos, basura
to harm- dañar
to chase- perseguir
to wound- herir
to solve- solucionar
recycling bin- contenedores para reciclar
crops- cultivos
weeds- malas hierbas
heatwave- ola de calor
affect- verbo afectar
effect- nombre, efecto
drought-sequía
flood- inundación
earthquake- terremoto
tidal wave- tsunami
typhoon- tifón
hyrricane- huracán
volcanic eruption- volcán en erupción

 THE EFFCTS OF ACID RAIN.

Use the word in the box of acid rain.

LIVE  FALLS  ANIMALS  RAIN  ACID  RIVERS  KILLED

The effects of acid..............are clearly seen in lakes, streams, rivers and oceans. Acid rain directly......... on water, and it can flow into............after it falls on land. Lakes and streams become acidic (theire pH value goes down) when the water can not neutralize the...............rain. Animals that.....................in the water environment are hurt or .........................Furthermore, .....................that eat prey that is affected will be killed because they will be consuming acid.

THE EFFECTS OF RUBBISH FROM PRIVATE OFFICES AND HOMES.

CUT  LAKES  FURNITURE  TINS  DOLPHINS  DUMP  ECOSYSTEM  OCEAN

Many people......................their rubbish into streams, lakes, eivers and oceans. Some examples of this rubbish are...................., paper,........................, and other household products. When lpeople dump cleaning products into the................ they are endagering its........................ Ehen plastic is dumpend in ......................, ducks are at risk because they might be strangled and when dumped in the ocean,................. might be killed. Alumninum tins can................the animals and fish.

THE EFFECTS OF FACTORY POLLUTION

OXYGEN  AQUATIC  STREAMS  CHEMICALS FACTORIES

Many...............................have pipes that drain chemicals into rivers or....................
These chemnicals can damage........................life as they are carried downstream.Furthermore, the added.....................can warm the river, which decreases the amont of.................... that the fish need to live.

viernes, 20 de mayo de 2011

INTERMEDIATE GRAMMAR

Can, could y be able (usos)

Pregunta

Tengo una duda sobre el pasado de can (expresado como habilidad) es decir could y be able to.

-Could solo se usa para hablar en general y was/were able to se usa para situaciones específicas.

Ejemplos:

-When I was a child, I could read without glasses.

-Dad didn't have any money on him, but fortunately he was able to use his credit car to pay the bill.

Yo la verdad no veo la diferencia aquí. ¿Me podrían explicar porque uso en un caso could en el otro be able to? y si también me podrían poner mas ejemplos por favor.


***********

Respuesta:

"Could" se utiliza cuando nuestras propias habilidades han hecho posible que se realizase un hecho.

En el primer ejemplo "When I was a child, I could read without glasses". "Cuando era niño podía leer sin gafas", es debido a la habilidad o la característica de la persona que realiza la acción.

-"Was able to" implica, además de la capacidad para hacer algo, que las circunstancias sean favorables para ello.

-"Dad didn't have any money on him, but fortunately he was able to use his credit card to pay the bill". Mi padre no llevaba dinero encima, pero afortunadamente pudo utilizar su tarjeta de crédito para pagar la cuenta.

En éste caso, las circunstancias fueron favorables (tenía tarjeta, la tarjeta no fue rechazada, etc)

Te pongo dos ejemplos más, uno de cada caso:

-"I can jump really high". Puedo saltar muy alto. (Pues muy bien)

-"My surfboard got lost at sea, but luckily I was able to recover it". Mi tabla de surf se perdió en el mar, pero afortunadamente pude recuperarla. (Aquí se han podido dar varias circunstancias: el viento, que la persona supiera nadar, que alguien la encontrase y se la devolviese...)
Reglas para utilizar "Can", "Could" y "Be able to"


  • "Can" es un verbo modal (auxiliar) que sólo se puede utilizar en Presente, es decir, "Yo puedo, Tú puedes, etc. "




  •  Ejemplo: "You can work [iukeanguork]". Tu puedes trabajar.












  • "Could" es un verbo modal que sólo se puede utilizar:








  • 1. En Pasado:,"Yo pude, Tú pudiste, etc. "
    Ejemplo: "Could you work yesterday? [kudiuguork iesterdei]." ¿Pudiste trabajar ayer?


     2. En Condicional: "Yo podría, Tú podrías, etc. "

    Ejemplo: "I could do it [ai kuduIt]." "Yo podría hacerlo."


    3. Subjuntivo: Puede que...

     Ejemplo: "She could come [shikudkam]." Puede que (ella) venga. Observación: La traducción del inglés al español, "puede que" o "podría", dependerá del contexto de la oración.





  • MUY IMPORTANTE:-"Can" y "Could" a veces (*), NO se pueden utilizar con otros verbos auxiliares. En cambio, "be able to" sí puede utilizarse con otros verbos auxiliares porque no es un verbo auxiliar.






  • (*) Hay algunas excepciones



  • Por ejemplo, se puede decir: "I could have done it [ai kudhavdonIt]." "Yo podría haberlo hecho." "Have" es en este caso un verbo auxiliar.




  • Cuando no se puede utilizar "Can" o "Could", empleamos la expresión "to be able to" [tubieiboltu].



  • Por ejemplo decimos: "I haven't been able to play [ai haven´tbiineiboltuplei]" "No he podido jugar." No decimos: "I haven't can play" o "I haven't could play. (ambos incorrectos).


    "Be able to" [bieiboltu] es el verbo "to be" más un adjetivo "able" que significa "ser capaz de", tener una habilidad específica. - "Be able to" se puede utilizar en todos los tiempos. Veamos algunos ejemplos:


  • Present: "I am able to do it [ai ameibol tuduIt]." Yo soy capaz de hacerlo. -





  • Past: "You were able to swim [iugüer eibol tusswim]" Tú sabías (podías) nadar -





  • Present Perfect: "She hasn't been able to come [shii hasent biin eibol tukam]." Ella no ha podido venir.






  •  Future: "They will be able to fly [dei güilbi eibol tuflai]" Ellos podrán volar





  • Conditional: "I would be able to do it, if you let me [ai wudbii eiboltudoIt if iuletmi]" Yo sería capaz (podría) de hacerlo, si tú me dejaras.



  • 1. George has travelled a lot. He-------------speak four languages.
     2. I used to-----------stand on my head but I can't do it now.
     3. When Tim was 16, he was a fast runner. He--------run 100 metres in 11.
    4. Sandra--------drive but she hasn't got a car.
     5. Ask Catherine about your problem. She might--------help you.
     6. I was feeling sick yesterday. eaI-------------t anything.
     7. Sue wasn't at home when I phoned but I-------contact her at her office.
    8. When we went into the house, we-------smell burning.
     9. Will she----------cope with the work?
    10. I can't see you on Friday but I----------meet you on Saturday evening.

    11. The bicycle chain broke but luckily I-----------repair it.
    1
    2. When I opened the door I------------smell gas.
    1
    3. The fire was spreading but he---------get out of the burning building.
    14. I was walking along the street and suddenly I----------see smoke coming from the church tower.
    15. Mr. Smith wears glasses because he------------see very well.
    1
    6. Peter had flu all week but on Saturday he------------play in the match,
    1
    7. I---------------understand what was happening.
    1
    8. Speak up! I-------------hear what you are saying.
    1
    9. The driver saw the dog in the middle of the road and he----------stop just in time.
    20. I-------------swim to the shore when the ship sank.



    sources: elblogdelingles y mansioningles

    answers

     can,be able to,could, can,be able to,couldn't,was able to,could,be able to,can,was be able to, could, was be able to, could, can't, was be able to, couldn't, can't, was be able to, was be able to.
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    If there are any errors it is because those sources already contain them and not as a result of the work of the creators of the blog, even the books we always use in class contain some errors.