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viernes, 30 de marzo de 2012

INFINITIVE with TO, without TO or GERUND


INFINITIVE + TO

§     Poner después de adjetivos
I’m happy to be here
It’s better not to smoke
My flat is easy to find

§     Poner después de question words (when, where, who, how, what)
Not why and whose.
The actor forgot when tos ay his lines
I don’t know what to say
Can you tell me how to get to the bus stop?

§     Poner después de Verbo+ Objeto
They invited him to go to the party
He asked them to give the speech for him
He told me to come soon
The president ordered us to invade
I helped my dad to clean the car
My mother allowed me to got out on Friday

§     Poner después de want and would like
He would like to go to America
I want to help you (yo doy la ayuda)

§     Poner después de the first, the last, the next.
Gagarin was the first to fly in a spaceship
Peter was the last to watch the film
He is the next to get his passport

§     Después de verbos como: agree, appear, hope, learn, need, promise, regret, offer, hesitate (tener dudas), decide, forget, help, plan, pretend, refuse, seem, try, afford, can’t afford, manage, advise, convince, encourage, invite, permit, persuade, hire, remind, tell, warn, require, order, cause, teach,  attempt, claim, continue, fail, dare, get used to, used to, remember, choose, expect, pay, begin, ask, prepare, need, want, start, stop..

 He hoped to see her again
      They need to buy a new car
      I learnt to drive a car when I was 17
      I refuse to lie to my customers.
VERBS WITH TO
TO DO SOMETHING
AFFORD, AGREE, APPEAR, ARRANGE, ASK, ATTEMPT, BEGIN, CAN’T AFFORD, CAN’T BEARD, CAN’T STAND, CAN’T WAIT, CARE, CHOOSE, CLAIM(asegurar), COME, CONSENT, CONTINUE, DARE, DECIDE, DESERVE, DETERMINE, EXPECT, FAIL , GET, GROW UP , GUARANTEE, HATE, HESITATE, HOPE, HURRY, INCLINE,INTEND, LAEARN, LIKE, LONG, LOVE, MANAGE, MEAN, NEED, OFFER, PAY, PLAN, PREFER, PREPARE, PRETEND, PROMISE, REFUSE, RECOMMEND (con that) REQUEST, RESOLVE, SAY, SEEK(look for),  SEEM, SHUDDER (no quiero pensar en algo), START, SWEAR, THREATEN, WANT, WISH, WOULD LIKE, YEARN(anhelar)
CON OBJETO (pronombre)
ADVISE, ALLOW , CAUSE, CONVINCE, ENCOURAGE, FORBID, FORCE, HIRE, INVITE, ORDER, PERSUADE, PREPARE, REMIND, TEACH, TELL, WARN, URGE(animar=encourage)
CON OBJETO Y SIN OBJETO ASK, EXPECT, NEED, PREPARE, PAY, CHOOSE, WANT, WOULD LIKE.

INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO

§     Después de verbos de percepción +objeto.
     Pasadas acciones las cuales han terminado
She felt the rain fallo n her face
I heard Peter sing a song
Mandy noticed the boy climb the tree
They saw him climj up the roof
He watched the thieves steal a car

§   Después de let (=allow) +objeto.
Recuerda el 2º verbo sin TO.
Sandy let her child go out alone
My mother lests me stay up late on Sunday

§     Después de make (obligación) + objeto
I make Lorena tidy the room
He made the children do their homework
She made Peggy and Sue clean the room

§     Despues de verbos modales
He can run very fast
As a boy he could run vry fast
I may fly to Africa this summer
I must go now
Shall we sing a song?
She would cook a meal for his birthday

§     Después del auxiliar DO/DOES/DID/DID NOT
I don’t know
He dosn’t want a cake

§     Después the expresiones como:
Had better
You had better clean up your room or your mother will be angry
Would rather or would sooner sin TO
Susan would rather stuydy for her exam tomorrow than go to the party
Why not, sugerencia
Why not ask your neighbour for help?
Why should we or why shouldn’t we
Why should we go by car?
     Why shouldn’t w go by car?


GERUND

§     Después de preposiciones y phrasal verbs
She’s given up smoking
She doesn’t believe in getting lost in the woods
I agree with reading books
The girls insisted on going out with Mark
He doesn’t rely on winning in the casino
They often talk about travelling to London
Frank thinks of playing chess
The patient worries about having the check-up

§     Después de verbos como: like, hope, prefer, remember, enjoy, understand, spend, don’t mind, would mind…
We prefer playing sport to doing exercise
The enjoy playing tennis on Saturday

§     Como sujeto de una oración
Eating out is quite cheap here
Reading is great fun
§     Después de un nombre + preposición
Peggy is in danger of making a mistake
He has difficulty in sending SMS
There’s no interest in writing letters
He was in trouble for stealing
What is the advantage of frming over hunting?
§   Después de adjetivos + preposición
They are afratid of losing the match
He is clever at skatebording
We are excited about makin our own film
Sandy is famous for singing songs
I’m tired of waiting for you
She is used to smoking
§   Después de oraciones formadas por Verb+-ing
Presente, pasado y futuro continuo,..........
§   Después de after, by, before, in spite of, on , without, despite, to be busy, couldn’t help, how about, it’s no use or good, there’s no, spend one’s time, what about, worth, there’s no point, feel like..
  •  When TO is a preposition
           BE USED TO--------------studying a lot. Estar acostumbrado a estudiar mucho
           GET USED TO-----------driving lorries. Acostumbrarse a conducir camiones
           LOOK FORWARD TO----watching the news. Tener ganas de ver las noticias
           OBJECT TO-----------------paying extra. Oponerse a pagar adicionales

VERBS WITH –ING
Admit doing something
Consider doing something
Acknowledge (admitir, reconocer), appreciate, avoid, be worth, carry on (continuar), celebrate, defend, delay, deny, detest, discuss, dispute, dread(tener temor, sin ilusión), dislike, endure, enjoy, escape, evade, explain, fancy o feel like, finish, forgive, give up (stop), imagine, involve, justify, keep (continuar), mention, miss, omit, permit, postpone, practise, prevent, prohibit propose, quit, recollect, recommend, resist, resume, report, risk, suggest, support, tolerate, understand, can’t help/bear/stand
VERBS WITH BOTH OF THEM
URGE-ENCOURAGE do sb, sin obj
ADVISE doing something
ALLOW doing sb, sin objeto
CONFESS
CONTINUE (siguiente actividad)
HATE, LIKE, HOPE, LOVE
PREFER
REGRET(lamentar algo que ha pasado o que hicimos en el pasado)
START( to or ing, the meaning is the same)
TRY( busco soluciones)
ATTEMPT
BEGAN( to or ing, the meaning is the same)
STOP(dejar de hacer algo)
MEAN (intención pasada)
FORGET(idea futura)
PERMIT doing sb, sin objeto
RECOMMEND doing sb. No that
REMEMBER (1º recuerdo 2º acción)


INFINITIVE or GERUND
§         Hay ciertos verbos en el que el significado cambia dependiendo de ir seguido de infinitivo o gerundio.
He’ll never forget spending so much money on his first computer(past idea)
Don’t forget to spend the money on the tickets (futura idea)
Go on reading the text (continua haciendo algo)
Go on to read the test (siguiente actividad)
You haven’t done your homework again. That means phoning your mother (resultado futuro)
I meant to phone your mother, but my mobile didn’t work
(intención pasada)
I remember switching off the lights when I went on holiday
(recuerdo pasado. 1ºacción y 2º recuerdo)
Remember to switch off the lights when you go to bed (intención futura)
Can you stop making all that noise? (dejar de hacer algo)
She stopped for five minutes to smoke a cigarette(paro de hacer algo para hacer otra cosa)
Why don’t you try running after the dog?( busco soluciones, opciones)
I tried to run after the dog, but I was too slow (hecho con esfuerzo, no busco soluciones)
I regret to tell you that ...(cuando lamentamos algo que vamos a decir).
I don’t regret telling her what I thought, even if she didn’t like it. ( arrepentirse de algo que ha pasado o que hicimos en el pasado)

Like + to
- es difícil
- no es usual. Situaciones específicas
- lleva mucho tiempo hacerlo, se necesita mucho dinero…..
I LIKE TO CLEAN THE KITCHEN AS.....AS.....
 (every day, every evening,.... I need a lot of time to do something
Like + verb-ing
- es fácil
- es usual, normal,  situación  general
- se necesita poco tiempo para hacerlo, dinero....
I like playing tennis
Prefer + infinitivo with to: prefiero algo o hacer algo. No comparo entre 2

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