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lunes, 30 de mayo de 2011

DEFINING OR NON-DEFINING

RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
                                                                                                    
                                                                                                       when         why
                       PERSON                   THING             PLACE     TIME      REASON

Subject        who/that                    which/that             


Object      who,whom, which,            which/that          where              
                   that or nothing                 nothing


Possessive     whose                         whose

DEFINING

Used to define who or what we are talking about. Comma are not used in definign relative clauses

Example:

Elephants who marry mice are very unusual.

Hay muchos elefantes pero solo hablamos de los que se casan con ratones, necesitamos definir de que elefantes hablamos, además decimos who y no which, porque la acción de casarse es cosa de personas.

The students who had revised hard passed the exam (only some of the students revised, and these were the ones who passed the exam)

The relative pronoun stands in place of a noun (en lugar de un nombre).
This noun usually appears earliere in the sentence (este nombre está antes en la frase)

The woman who/that spoke at the meeting was very knowledgeable

We can use that instead of who, whom (very formal), which. The first time is better use who, which, whom.
That normally follows words like something, anything, everything, nothing, all, and superlatives.

There's somthing that you should know
It was the best film that I've ever seen

The doctor whom, who, nothing, that I was hoping ti see wasn't on duty.

The relative pronoun can be omitted when it is the object of the clause (who, whom, which or that).

Si hay un nombre o pronombre después del pronombre relativo podemos omitirlo porque es el objeto de la cláusula.

The mousse that the elephant love was very beautiful. Correct
The mousse the elephant love was very beautiful. Correct, but is more common in spoke English.

The company that she works for is based in London. Correct
The company she works for is basde in London. Correct
The company that employs her is based in London. Correct
The company employs her is based in London. Incorrect, because The company is a subject pronoun and I need that.

Whose (cuyo/a, cuyos/as..) is used for things as well as for people. Possessive

The man whose car was stolen is from Russia
A tree whose leaves have fallen looks very different

NON-DEFINING

These clause add more information. This extra information is put between commas and does not explain who or what we are talking about.

We can not use That instead of who, which in non- defining clauses.
We can use, some, none, all and many with "of which" and "whom" to add extra information.

In non-defining relative clauses, object pronoun must be used

Lucy, who I haven't seen for ages, rang me last night.


SUBJECT OR OBJECT?

If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun. Subject pronouns must always be used.

the apple which is lying on the table. WHICH+ VERB= SUBJECT PRONOUN

If the relative pronoun is not followed by a verb (but by a noun or pronoun), the relative pronoun is an object pronoun. Object pronouns can be dropped in defining relative clauses, which are then called Contact Clauses.

the apple (which) George lay on the table.  WHICH+NOUN/PRONOUN= OBJECT PRONOUN


EXAMPLES

My students, many of whom are from Europe, are learning English to get a better job

My students, who are all adults, are learning English to get a better job.

My students, who had revise hard, passed the exam(all the students revised and they all passed it)


EXERCISE


Relative clauses - defining or non-defining?

Study the situations and then decide whether the following relative clauses are defining or non-defining.
defining – no commas
non-defining – commas
  1. I have three brothers.

  2. I have one sister.

  3. Bob's mum has lost her keys.

  4. My friend Jane moved to Canada.

  5. I am a shoe fanatic.

  6. Mr Robinson is very famous.

  7. Tamara has two cats. Both of them are black.

  8. Kevin has four cats. Two of them are black.

  9. We are on holiday. Yesterday we visited a church.

  10. We are on holiday. Yesterday we visited a church.

2º EXERCISE

Decide whether the relative pronouns must be used or not.

  1. A calendar is something which tells you the date.

  2. Strikers are soccer players who try to score goals for their team.

  3. Jane is a person who everybody likes.

  4. A stamp is something which you put on a letter if you want to send it.

  5. The Thames is a river which runs through London.

  6. Cheese is food which mice like eating.

  7. A racket is something which you use to hit a ball when you play tennis or badminton.

  8. Socks are things which you wear on your feet.

  9. A guide is a person who shows tourists around around a place.

  10. Love is a feeling which nobody can describe.


3EXERCISE

Decide whether the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun or an object pronoun.
  1. Do you know the girl who I danced with? -
  2. Do you know the girl who danced with me? -
  3. The apples that are lying on the table are bad. -
  4. The apples that we bought in the shop are bad. -
  5. We will stay at a hotel which is not far from the beach. -
  6. We will stay at a hotel which my friend has recommended to us.
  7. That is a museum which I like very much. -
  8. That is a museum which lies in the heart of the town.
  9. This is the man who Barbara visited in Scotland.
  10. This is the man who lives in Scotland.
4EXERCISE

Choose the correct relative pronoun (who, which, whose).
  1. This is the bank was robbed yesterday.
  2. A boy sister is in my class was in the bank at that time.
  3. The man robbed the bank had two pistols.
  4. He wore a mask made him look like Mickey Mouse.
  5. He came with a friend waited outside in the car.
  6. The woman gave him the money was young.
  7. The bag contained the money was yellow.
  8. The people were in the bank were very frightened.
  9. A man mobile was ringing did not know what to do.
  10. A woman daughter was crying tried to calm her.
  11. The car the bank robbers escaped in was orange.
  12. The robber mask was obviously too big didn't drive.
  13. The man drove the car was nervous.
  14. He didn't wait at the traffic lights were red.
  15. A police officer car was parked at the next corner stopped and arrested them.
5.exercise

Decide whether the relative pronon us correct or not.
  1. The postman which works in this village is very old. Correct or not.
  2. The egg which is in the nest is brown. Correct or not
  3. Where is the bed who was in the attic. Correct or not
  4. The cowboy who is wearing the red shirt is very funny. Correct or not
  5. The bottles that are lying on the foor are green. Correct or no

ANSWERS

1 exercise.
a,bbb,a,bb,aa,b

2. exercise
aa,bb,a,bbb,a,b

3. exercise
who-object
who-subj
that-subj
that-obj
which- subj
which- obj
wich-. obj
which-subj
who- obj
who- subj

4.exercise

which, whose,who, which,who, who, which,who,whose, whose, which, whose,who, which,whose

5.exercise

not correct, correct, not correct,correct, correct.

sources.ego4.com and Jean's notes

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