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viernes, 30 de marzo de 2012

WILL, WOULD, SHALL

WILL
Se usa:

1.    El "future simple" es un tiempo que sirve para describir acciones que se van a desarrollar en el futuro cercano o lejano.

          I will play tennis. / Yo jugaré al tenis 
          She will buy a car. / Ella se comprará un coche
    We will send them a postcard./ Les enviaremos una postal

2. se puede utilizar con o sin mencionar el tiempo en el que se desarrollará la acción:

          We will go to the cinema tomorrow Nosotros iremos al cine mañana
          We will go to the cinema Nosotros iremos al cine

3. Se utiliza para hacer prediciones sobre el futuro, expectativas y describir deseosdecisiones espontáneasopiniones personales y hacer un ofrecimiento.

They will win the match
Ellos ganarán el partido. 
think that I will abroad when I am older
Pienso que viviré en el extranjero cuando yo sea mayor.
It is too hot. I will turn on the air-condicionating/ Hace demasiado calor.
 Encenderé el aire acondicionado.
I have got a headache. I will get you an aspirin/ 
Tengo dolor de cabeza. Yo te daré una aspirina.

  • SHALL se usa para hacer sugerir algo.
  •  Ofrecimientos y sugerencias en oraciones interrogativas se usa shall  más que will.
  • Usar con 1ª persona singular,"I" y 1ª en plural, "we"
                   Shall we dance?

    Particulas identificativas

·       I think, I hope (espero), I’m sure (estoy seguro), maybe(quizás), in four months’ time (dentro de 4 meses), one day, in the future, in 2008, next week, soon (pronto), later, next year, tomorrow,..

Estructura afirmativa:      SUJETO + WILL VERBO BASE

Estructura negativa:       SUJETO + WILL NOT WON’TVERBO BASE        
                                              

Estructura interrogativa:  WILL O WON’T + SUJETO VERBO BASE?
                                            
                                QUESTION WORD + WILLSUJETO VERBO BASE?
                                   
Ejemplos:

What will you do?/ ¿Qué harás tú?
We will play in the patio / Nosotros jugaremos en el patio
He won't do his homework/ Él no hará los deberes
Where will we live?/ ¿Donde vivirmos nosotros?
I won't go to the beach / Yo no iré a la playa
Will they have dinner in the restaurant?/¿Cenarán ellos en el restaurante?
Will you have coffee with your friends?/ ¿Tomarás café con tus amigos?

I will / shall close the door for you.
How will/shall you get here?. Opciones, datos
§         Para expresar un favor. Preguntas SI o NO.
Will / Shall you turn off the TV?
§         Solicitar información sobre una cosa o persona.  Preguntas SI o No
Will / Shall Tom ever pay you back?

WOULD

§      Indica preferencia. Lleva el verbo like
Would you like some tea?
§      Para introducir acciones del pasado
When I was a student, I would go swimming every day.
§      Para explicar una acción que ha sido resultado de una condición verdadera o supuesta.
Tom would drive, but he doesn't have a license.
Solicitar algo (sin d’ like) o una decisión (con ‘d like), cortésmente.


SHALL
§         Para preguntar sobre preferencias y recomendaciones. Primeras personas
Shall I close the door?
What time will / shall we meet?
§         Para saber opciones o datos en preguntas afirmativas.
When will / shall I see you again?


EXERCISE 1           EXERCISE 2       EXERCISE 3        EXERCISE 4    EXERCISE 5

WOULD RATHER, HAD BETTER, PREFER, HAVE/GET SOMETHING DONE AND WISH

HAD BETTER or HAD BETTER NOT
§         Es mejor hacerlo o no, sino lo haces  o no, habrá algún problema o peligro.
You’d  better not do!
I’d better not mention it to anyone
She’d better not work so hard after your illness
What had I better do, stay in bedf all day or see a doctor?
WOULD RATHER OR WOULD RATHER NOT
§  Puedes preferir hacerlo o no. No hay peligro ni problemas
What would you rather drink, tea or coffee?
    He’d rather not see a movie than go to the opera
I’d rather not go to the party alone
She’d rather speak to him at his home
PREFER TO OR LIKE......BETTER THAN

I like watching TV better than studying math
I like cold drinks better than hot drinks
I prefer apples to oranges
You prefer playing sport to doing yoga

HAVE SOMETHING DONE
Cuando organizamos que alguién más haga algo para nosotros.
Verbo “have/had” + objeto + participio pasado
Lisa had the roof repaired yesterday
Where did you have your hair cut?
I don’t like having my photograph taken
I think you should have that coat cleaned

También existe una forma informal para expresar la idea de que “alguien hace algo para tí”.
Se trata de una fórmula con el verbo “get”. Por ejemplo: “I got my car repaired” [aigat maiher riperd] es igual a decir: “I had my car repaired”. Me arreglaron el coche. Todo lo que tengo que hacer es sustituir “have/had” por “get/got” (u otros tiempos verbales).

 
If only / I wish + simple past
Example:
If only I knew how to use a computer. (I don’t know how to use a computer and I would like to learn how to use it)
Use:
·        To express a wish in the present or in the future.
·        The simple past here is an unreal past.
·        When you use the verb to be the form is “were”.
Example:
I wish I were a millionaire!

If only / I wish + past perfect
Example:
If only I had woken up early. (I didn’t wake up early and I missed my bus.)
Use:
·        To express a regret.
·        The action is past.

MODAL VERBS

MAY or MAY NOT
  • Para posibilidad presente o futura. Dudas,  incierto
  • Para pedir permiso amable y cortésmente.
  • Pensamos que algo es posible.
  • Con frecuencia para expresar como de seguros estamos sobre algo, basados en información que tenemos
MAY +HAVE +PAST PARTICIPLE, era posible en el pasado.

MIGHT or MIGHT NOT
§   Posibilidad presente o futura, la posibilidad es poquito menor que con MAY.
Dudas, incierto
§   Para pedir permiso pero es mejor MAY
§   Como pasado de MAY.
MIGHT+HAVE+PAST PARTICIPLE, cuando algo era posible en el pasado. Hechos pasados

SHOULDN’T OR SHOULD NOT

§   Para aconsejar, sugerir o recomendar no hacer algo. Que no es correcto.
§   Shouldn’t have +past participle para expresar arrepentimiento o criticar hechos del pasado.
I shouldn’t have gone out late last night but I did

MUSN’T OR MUST NOT (prohibition)
  • No usar en una conversación cara a cara es mejor usar shouldn’t.
You should be more careful. CORRECT
  • Para decir que es necesario o importante de no hacer algo.
We musn’t forget to tell them about the party

DON’T HAVE TO or NEEDEN’T

§         En prensente: darle permiso a alguien para que no haga algo en el futuro inmediato.
You don’t need to /needn’t hurry. There’s plenty of time
§   No  necesito hacerlo, no es obligatorio.
You don’t have to go to the party if you don’t want to.
I don’t have to pay for the tickets. They’re free.
§   Needn’t sin to se usa para negativas e interrogativas. Pasado need + have+ Pp
You needn’t go.
§   Needn’t con to, para afirmativas para expresar necesidad general.
Don’t need to find a job.  DIDN’T NEED TO
Vegetarians think that we don’t need to kill animals to eat.

MODAL VERBS

CAN
§         Para decir que algo es posible o está permitido
I haven’t got a pen. You can use mine
Can you speak any foreign languages?
§         Que alguien tiene la habilidad de hacer algo. General habilidad y específica (futuro). I can help you tomorrow
§          Más usual que BE ABLE TO (habilidad concreta).
I can play the piano
She can speak English
§         Se usa para hablar en presente y condicionales.
§         Be able to, se puede usar en presente, pero es más formal que can.
§         CAN’T: es negativo de can. 100% imposible
I’m afraid I can’t come to the party on Friday

COULD
§   Se usa a veces como pasado de can. Suele usarse con   remember, see, hear, smell, taste, feel, understand
We had a lovely room in the hotel. We could see the lake
As soon as I walked into the rrom, I could smell gas
§   Posibilidad futura
It could  be a good job
§   Para decir que alguien tiene una habilidad general o permiso para hacer algo.
My grandfather could speak six languages
I could read when I was four
§    Could + have+ past participle.  Habilidad que alguien tenía en el pasado pero que ya no la usa. Algo pasado
We Could have come earlier

BE ABLE TO
§   Para habilidades y situaciones específicas. Más en tiempo pasado
When the computer crashed, yesterday, I was able to fix it.
§   Se usa futuro para habilidades generales
At the end of the course you’ll be able to make your own website
§   Presente y pasado (CAN es más coloquial), futuro, presente perfecto, gerundios, infinitivos.
I love being able to sleep late at weekends
They weren’t able to come

INFINITIVE with TO, without TO or GERUND


INFINITIVE + TO

§     Poner después de adjetivos
I’m happy to be here
It’s better not to smoke
My flat is easy to find

§     Poner después de question words (when, where, who, how, what)
Not why and whose.
The actor forgot when tos ay his lines
I don’t know what to say
Can you tell me how to get to the bus stop?

§     Poner después de Verbo+ Objeto
They invited him to go to the party
He asked them to give the speech for him
He told me to come soon
The president ordered us to invade
I helped my dad to clean the car
My mother allowed me to got out on Friday

§     Poner después de want and would like
He would like to go to America
I want to help you (yo doy la ayuda)

§     Poner después de the first, the last, the next.
Gagarin was the first to fly in a spaceship
Peter was the last to watch the film
He is the next to get his passport

§     Después de verbos como: agree, appear, hope, learn, need, promise, regret, offer, hesitate (tener dudas), decide, forget, help, plan, pretend, refuse, seem, try, afford, can’t afford, manage, advise, convince, encourage, invite, permit, persuade, hire, remind, tell, warn, require, order, cause, teach,  attempt, claim, continue, fail, dare, get used to, used to, remember, choose, expect, pay, begin, ask, prepare, need, want, start, stop..

 He hoped to see her again
      They need to buy a new car
      I learnt to drive a car when I was 17
      I refuse to lie to my customers.
VERBS WITH TO
TO DO SOMETHING
AFFORD, AGREE, APPEAR, ARRANGE, ASK, ATTEMPT, BEGIN, CAN’T AFFORD, CAN’T BEARD, CAN’T STAND, CAN’T WAIT, CARE, CHOOSE, CLAIM(asegurar), COME, CONSENT, CONTINUE, DARE, DECIDE, DESERVE, DETERMINE, EXPECT, FAIL , GET, GROW UP , GUARANTEE, HATE, HESITATE, HOPE, HURRY, INCLINE,INTEND, LAEARN, LIKE, LONG, LOVE, MANAGE, MEAN, NEED, OFFER, PAY, PLAN, PREFER, PREPARE, PRETEND, PROMISE, REFUSE, RECOMMEND (con that) REQUEST, RESOLVE, SAY, SEEK(look for),  SEEM, SHUDDER (no quiero pensar en algo), START, SWEAR, THREATEN, WANT, WISH, WOULD LIKE, YEARN(anhelar)
CON OBJETO (pronombre)
ADVISE, ALLOW , CAUSE, CONVINCE, ENCOURAGE, FORBID, FORCE, HIRE, INVITE, ORDER, PERSUADE, PREPARE, REMIND, TEACH, TELL, WARN, URGE(animar=encourage)
CON OBJETO Y SIN OBJETO ASK, EXPECT, NEED, PREPARE, PAY, CHOOSE, WANT, WOULD LIKE.

INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO

§     Después de verbos de percepción +objeto.
     Pasadas acciones las cuales han terminado
She felt the rain fallo n her face
I heard Peter sing a song
Mandy noticed the boy climb the tree
They saw him climj up the roof
He watched the thieves steal a car

§   Después de let (=allow) +objeto.
Recuerda el 2º verbo sin TO.
Sandy let her child go out alone
My mother lests me stay up late on Sunday

§     Después de make (obligación) + objeto
I make Lorena tidy the room
He made the children do their homework
She made Peggy and Sue clean the room

§     Despues de verbos modales
He can run very fast
As a boy he could run vry fast
I may fly to Africa this summer
I must go now
Shall we sing a song?
She would cook a meal for his birthday

§     Después del auxiliar DO/DOES/DID/DID NOT
I don’t know
He dosn’t want a cake

§     Después the expresiones como:
Had better
You had better clean up your room or your mother will be angry
Would rather or would sooner sin TO
Susan would rather stuydy for her exam tomorrow than go to the party
Why not, sugerencia
Why not ask your neighbour for help?
Why should we or why shouldn’t we
Why should we go by car?
     Why shouldn’t w go by car?


GERUND

§     Después de preposiciones y phrasal verbs
She’s given up smoking
She doesn’t believe in getting lost in the woods
I agree with reading books
The girls insisted on going out with Mark
He doesn’t rely on winning in the casino
They often talk about travelling to London
Frank thinks of playing chess
The patient worries about having the check-up

§     Después de verbos como: like, hope, prefer, remember, enjoy, understand, spend, don’t mind, would mind…
We prefer playing sport to doing exercise
The enjoy playing tennis on Saturday

§     Como sujeto de una oración
Eating out is quite cheap here
Reading is great fun
§     Después de un nombre + preposición
Peggy is in danger of making a mistake
He has difficulty in sending SMS
There’s no interest in writing letters
He was in trouble for stealing
What is the advantage of frming over hunting?
§   Después de adjetivos + preposición
They are afratid of losing the match
He is clever at skatebording
We are excited about makin our own film
Sandy is famous for singing songs
I’m tired of waiting for you
She is used to smoking
§   Después de oraciones formadas por Verb+-ing
Presente, pasado y futuro continuo,..........
§   Después de after, by, before, in spite of, on , without, despite, to be busy, couldn’t help, how about, it’s no use or good, there’s no, spend one’s time, what about, worth, there’s no point, feel like..
  •  When TO is a preposition
           BE USED TO--------------studying a lot. Estar acostumbrado a estudiar mucho
           GET USED TO-----------driving lorries. Acostumbrarse a conducir camiones
           LOOK FORWARD TO----watching the news. Tener ganas de ver las noticias
           OBJECT TO-----------------paying extra. Oponerse a pagar adicionales

VERBS WITH –ING
Admit doing something
Consider doing something
Acknowledge (admitir, reconocer), appreciate, avoid, be worth, carry on (continuar), celebrate, defend, delay, deny, detest, discuss, dispute, dread(tener temor, sin ilusión), dislike, endure, enjoy, escape, evade, explain, fancy o feel like, finish, forgive, give up (stop), imagine, involve, justify, keep (continuar), mention, miss, omit, permit, postpone, practise, prevent, prohibit propose, quit, recollect, recommend, resist, resume, report, risk, suggest, support, tolerate, understand, can’t help/bear/stand
VERBS WITH BOTH OF THEM
URGE-ENCOURAGE do sb, sin obj
ADVISE doing something
ALLOW doing sb, sin objeto
CONFESS
CONTINUE (siguiente actividad)
HATE, LIKE, HOPE, LOVE
PREFER
REGRET(lamentar algo que ha pasado o que hicimos en el pasado)
START( to or ing, the meaning is the same)
TRY( busco soluciones)
ATTEMPT
BEGAN( to or ing, the meaning is the same)
STOP(dejar de hacer algo)
MEAN (intención pasada)
FORGET(idea futura)
PERMIT doing sb, sin objeto
RECOMMEND doing sb. No that
REMEMBER (1º recuerdo 2º acción)


INFINITIVE or GERUND
§         Hay ciertos verbos en el que el significado cambia dependiendo de ir seguido de infinitivo o gerundio.
He’ll never forget spending so much money on his first computer(past idea)
Don’t forget to spend the money on the tickets (futura idea)
Go on reading the text (continua haciendo algo)
Go on to read the test (siguiente actividad)
You haven’t done your homework again. That means phoning your mother (resultado futuro)
I meant to phone your mother, but my mobile didn’t work
(intención pasada)
I remember switching off the lights when I went on holiday
(recuerdo pasado. 1ºacción y 2º recuerdo)
Remember to switch off the lights when you go to bed (intención futura)
Can you stop making all that noise? (dejar de hacer algo)
She stopped for five minutes to smoke a cigarette(paro de hacer algo para hacer otra cosa)
Why don’t you try running after the dog?( busco soluciones, opciones)
I tried to run after the dog, but I was too slow (hecho con esfuerzo, no busco soluciones)
I regret to tell you that ...(cuando lamentamos algo que vamos a decir).
I don’t regret telling her what I thought, even if she didn’t like it. ( arrepentirse de algo que ha pasado o que hicimos en el pasado)

Like + to
- es difícil
- no es usual. Situaciones específicas
- lleva mucho tiempo hacerlo, se necesita mucho dinero…..
I LIKE TO CLEAN THE KITCHEN AS.....AS.....
 (every day, every evening,.... I need a lot of time to do something
Like + verb-ing
- es fácil
- es usual, normal,  situación  general
- se necesita poco tiempo para hacerlo, dinero....
I like playing tennis
Prefer + infinitivo with to: prefiero algo o hacer algo. No comparo entre 2
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